Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with which of the following breathing patterns?​

  1. Apneustic
  2. Bradypnea
  3. Hyperpnea
  4. Kussmauls


  1. Incorrect. An apneustic respiratory pattern appears as prolonged gasping respirations.

  2. Incorrect. Bradypnea is a slow rate of breathing, less than 12 breaths/minute.

  3. Incorrect. Hyperpnea is deep breathing only.

  4. Correct. Kussmauls respiratory pattern is fast and deep breathing, and is associated with metabolic acidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis.